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Endoscopic Sinus Surgery 

The sinuses are hollow areas formed by the bones of the face. Normally, a thin layer of mucus drains from the sinuses into the nose. If the drainage path is blocked, problems such as infection can result. Endoscopic sinus surgery can be done to help clear blockages. The surgeon uses a thin, lighted tube (endoscope) that is put into your nose. The tube lets the surgeon see and operate inside your nose and sinuses.

Closeup of instruments inserted in nose, repairing deviated septum. Sinus has polyps.
Straightening the septum

Closeup of instruments inserted in nose, removing polyps.
Removing polyps

Side view of inside of nose showing instruments removing bone from ethmoid sinus.
Opening the ethmoid sinuses

Closeup of instruments inserted in nose, removing piece of bone.
Clearing the outflow pathway

Straightening the septum

The septum is a piece of cartilage and bone that runs straight down the inside of the nose. It divides the nose into 2 sides. A deviated septum is crooked instead of straight. A crooked septum can cause breathing problems. To fix a deviated septum, the surgeon reshapes or trims the cartilage and bone. There is enough septum left for the nose to hold its shape. But the air has more space to move in and out of the nose. This improves your breathing.

Removing polyps

Polyps are small growths. They can grow in both the nose and sinuses. The surgeon may use different ways to take them out. Often, the surgeon uses special tools to take out the polyps without harming nearby tissues.

Opening the ethmoid sinuses

The ethmoid sinuses are made up of many small air spaces, like a honeycomb. Like the other sinuses, the ethmoids have a lining that makes mucus. In some cases, the drainage path is blocked. The surgeon may open the thin walls of bone that separate the air spaces. This makes a passage for mucus to drain more easily.

Clearing the major outflow pathway of the sinuses

The osteomeatal complex is a term for a major outflow tract of your sinuses. When this part becomes blocked, you may get symptoms in your maxillary, ethmoid, and frontal sinuses. Opening this area is the main step in most sinus surgeries. The uncinate process is a small piece of bone and tissue in the sinuses. It forms an outlet for part of the sinuses. If this tissue is swollen (inflamed), it will block drainage of mucus. The surgeon may take out the uncinate process so that mucus can drain.

Online Medical Reviewer: Ashutosh Kacker MD
Online Medical Reviewer: Daphne Pierce-Smith RN MSN CCRC
Online Medical Reviewer: Marianne Fraser MSN RN
Date Last Reviewed: 12/1/2019
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